intestinal viruses

intestines viruses going aroundintestinal viruses or Gastroenteritis also known as stomach flu or tummy flu or intestinal flu is the irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract. This condition may cause abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. All ages and both sexes may be affected yet the most severe symptoms are experienced by infants and those individuals over sixty years old.Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in both adults and children. Many types of viruses can cause gastroenteritis. These viruses are often found in contaminated food or drinking water. Symptoms of viral gastroenteritis usually appear within 4 – 48 hours after exposure to the contaminated food or water.

The most common ones are:
•    Astrovirus
•    Enteric adenovirus
•    Norovirus (also called Norwalk-like virus). It is common among school-age children.
•    Rotavirus, the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It can also infect adults exposed to children with the virus. Outbreaks may also occur in nursing homes.

Symptoms of gastroenteritis are:
•    Abdominal pain
•    Diarrhea
•    Nausea
•    Vomiting
•    Chills
•    Clammy skin
•    Excessive sweating
•    Fever
•    Joint stiffness
•    Leakage (incontinence) of stool
•    Muscle pain
•    Poor feeding
•    Vomiting blood (very rare)
•    Weight loss

The patient is given extra fluids to control dehydration. One must also avoid drinks with excess of sugar like apple juice, soda, cold drink or jell-O because all these have certain sugars, which makes diarrhea worse, and they don’t replace lost minerals also.  One can go for electrolyte drinks or ORS solutions. You must consult a gastroenteritis specialist doctor for proper treatment.

Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a type of bacteria with an extremely short incubation period, making it difficult to interrupt the chain of transmission. Infection, almost invariably due to unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner, can be prevented by the use of a condom. The risk of having gonorrhea increases if you:

•    Have multiple sexual partners
•    Have a partner with a past history of any sexually transmitted infection
•    Do not use a condom during sex
•    Abuse alcohol or illegal substances

Some 50 percent of infected females are asymptomatic; in symptomatic cases the signs of infection are similar to those seen in the male. Symptoms in men include:
•    Burning and pain while urinating
•    Increased urinary frequency or urgency
•    Discharge from the penis (white, yellow, or green in color)
•    Red or swollen opening of penis (urethra)
•    Tender or swollen testicles
•    Sore throat (gonococcal pharyngitis)

Symptoms in women can be very mild or nonspecific, and may be mistaken for another type of infection. They include:
•    Vaginal discharge
•    Burning and pain while urinating
•    Increased urination
•    Sore throat
•    Painful sexual intercourse
•    Severe pain in lower abdomen (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and stomach area)
•    Fever (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and stomach area)

Gonorrhea spreads locally along mucosal surfaces, ascending the urethra in the male and either the vagina or the urethra in the female. The bacteria may also be disseminated through the blood to more-distant sites; systemic manifestations include headache and, if untreated, arthritis or heart disease. Being a sexually transmitted disease it becomes necessary to treat it on time. You must contact a gonorrhea specialist doctor and don’t forget to use condom. Remember gonorrhea can spread among partners so ask your partner also to have a diagnosis for the disease.

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